February 25, 2024

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2017: A year of achievements, challenges to gender inequality, scandal and losses: Video

The year 2017 was quite something for the jazz world. Incidents or discussions of misogyny and sexual misconduct bubbled up even before the #MeToo phenomenon developed. Beyond that, woman musicians made significant contributions to the genre. International Jazz Day brought its biggest stage to Havana, Cuba.

Sonny Rollins made the headlines without playing a note. The New Orleans financial scandal focusing on trumpeter Irvin Mayfield reached the indictment phase. It was the 100th birthday year for ten deceased jazz notables. The National Endowment for the Arts welcomed four new NEA Jazz Masters and the jazz world said farewell to four others who were among the many industry-associated musicians and figures who passed away during the year.

Jazz and gender

In this second century for jazz, one would think there would be a level playing field for all musicians. But the subject of inequality is still there—and surfaced throughout the year in many guises. Misogyny and misconduct drew important new focuses amid reports of sexual misbehavior—and several women musicians went public with personal stories about repression and/or sexism that proclaimed it’s time for a new day and more awareness.

Some of these happened well before the #MeToo phenomenon opened the floodgates.

Grammy-winning Portland, Oregon trumpeter and educator Thara Memory was indicted in February on 10 counts of sex abuse and harassment of two girls and two women, at least two of whom had been his students. The incidents allegedly occurred between 2013 and 2016. Memory died four months after his arrest at age 68. His health had been failing for several years. Bassist and educator Steve Kirby retired in June from the University of Manitoba jazz faculty after an internal investigation report found he repeatedly made inappropriate sexual comments and unwanted sexual contact with female students. He had taught in Winnipeg since 2003. After his quiet departure, Kirby joined the Berklee College of Music faculty, but was fired when Berklee administrators learned of the matter. At a three-hour town hall meeting in November after the Boston Globe published articles spotlighting several incidents, Berklee president Roger Brown revealed that 11 faculty members quietly had been dismissed over sexual misconduct allegations since 2004. He announced the administration would take steps to ensure Berklee is place that is safe and nurturing for every student. A faculty group called for increased female representation of faculty and students to 50 percent by 2025.

Robert Glasper fueled the sexism discussion in an interview published on fellow pianist Ethan Iverson’s blog, “Do the Math” that was published in early March. Glasper talked about the jazz audience, saying women listeners are more interested in the groove than the solo (he used the term “musical clitoris”). It prompted scathing criticism on social media. Glasper and Iverson both apologized. In a Facebook posting that acknowledged his poor choice of words, Glasper said his intent had been to show that jazz is still too much of a “boy’s club”—and that needs to change.

Drummer and vibraphonist Sasha Berliner, a student at New York’s New School of Jazz and Contemporary Music, guitarist Lily Maase and baritone saxophonist Lauren Sevian wrote lengthy blog posts or other open accounts about their personal experiences as women musicians. In a 6,000-word blog response to the Glasper interview, Berliner talked about being overlooked or underestimated by teachers despite her talent, and said she had been sexually harassed by someone she relied on for gigs in her native San Francisco Bay Area. The year wasn’t all about sexual harassment issues for women musicians. It was also a time for significant projects, groundbreaking innovation and saying farewell to one of their leading lights—pianist Geri Allen.

Bassist, singer and bandleader Esperanza Spalding broadcast live on Facebook for 77 hours non-stop in mid-September while writing, rehearsing and recording a new album called Exposure. The challenging project, as described by Giovanni Russonello in the New York Times, “became a display of dauntless prowess and grand ambition.”

Critics took note of significant new or debut albums. They included avant-garde trumpeter Jaimie Branch’s Fly or Die (International Anthem, 2017), drummer Kate Gentile’s Mannequins (Skirl, 2017), pianist Simona Premazzi’s Outspoken (Sself Produced, 2017) and pianist Marta Sanchez’s Danza Impossible (Fresh Sound New Talent, 2017). Pianist Geri Allen, who had an outstanding career as a top-tier pianist and educator (University of Michigan, University of Pittsburgh), died June 27 from cancer just two weeks after her 60th birthday. Allen had been scheduled to appear in August at the Newport Jazz Festival with her collaborative all-star trio ACS with drummer Terri Lyne Carrington and bassist Spalding. Carrington and Spalding carried on with a “Flying Toward the Sound” program in Allen’s honor at Newport, celebrating her music with a rotation of pianists: Vijay Iyer, Jason Moran and Christian Sands.

International Jazz Day, Take Six

Havana, Cuba was the Global Host City for 2017’s International Jazz Day a worldwide event produced by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. The highlight, its Global Concert, took place April 30 at the Gran Teatro de La Habana Alicia Alonso and was streamed worldwide. UNESCO goodwill ambassador Herbie Hancock and fellow pianist Chucho Valdes were the artist directors for this sixth annual event.

The international roster of performers included Ambrose Akinmusire, Melissa Aldana, Richard Bona, Till Bronner, Igor Butman, Regina Carter, Kurt Elling, Takuya Kuroda, Ivan Lins, Sixto Llorente, Youn Sun Nah,Gianluca Petrella, Gonzalo Rubalcaba, Antonio Sanchez, Esperanza Spalding, Dhafer Youssef and others. To showcase its talent, Cuba required that the concert performers include one Cuban musician per one “global” artist. Musicians and educators from Cuba and around the world participated in free concerts, master classes, workshops and outreach throughout Havana in the week leading up to the concert. Thousands of International Jazz Day performances, educational activities and community service programs took place in more than 190 countries.

In a departure from past practice, UNESCO revised the selection process and also announced the International Jazz Day Global Host Cities for the next two years. They will be Saint Petersburg, Russia in 2018 and Sydney, Australia in 2019. Both cities were selected by an advisory committee through a new nominating process. In contrast to these early announcements, 2017’s locale wasn’t disclosed until three weeks before the Havana concert.

Jazzy Centennials

A significant number of jazz notables had their 100th birthdays noted posthumously—sometimes with great fanfare—during 2017. Those musicians included pianist Tadd Dameron, singer Ella Fitzgerald, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, singers Lena Horne and Dave Lambert, pianist Thelonious Monk, drummer Buddy Rich, bassist Curley Russell, percussionist Mongo Santamaria and singer Jo Stafford. Former Gillespie pianist Danilo Pérez assembled an all-star band to tour North America and Europe performing the music of four jazz icons born in 1917. The tour was called Jazz 100: The Music of Dizzy, Ella, Mongo and Monk. Thelonious Monk’s hometown of Rocky Mount, North Carolina, celebrated his centennial with several activities, even though his family moved to New York when he was 4.

Sonny Side Up

Sonny Rollins doesn’t perform anymore due to health issues, but the 86-year-old tenor saxophone titan is still making his presence felt on jazz and society in a variety of ways. In May, New York’s Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture announced it had acquired Rollins’ personal archive. It includes hundreds of recordings from rehearsals and practice sessions, hundreds of pages of musical notation, a Selmer saxophone that Rollins played as far back as the 1950s, scores of letters to and from his wife, Lucille, who managed his career starting in the 1970s, and a stream of philosophical notes. The center said it will eventually make the archive accessible to the public.

But there’s more. In November, he designated a major gift to Oberlin College in Ohio to create the “Sonny Rollins Jazz Ensemble Fund” to support “exemplary conservatory musicians and service efforts.” The college said Rollins was moved by Oberlin’s place “as the first institution of higher learning to adopt a policy to admit students of color and the first to confer degrees to women, and by the contributions its alumni. They included alumni black violinist and composer Will Marion Cook, who graduated in 1888 and went on to become an important teacher and mentor to Duke Ellington.” Rollins said he wanted to help cultivate promising jazz musicians within the framework of “inclusive excellence and social impact,” he said. “Giving back to others teaches inner peace and inner spirituality. Everything is going to be open for them if they devote themselves in this way.” Beginning in spring 2018, Oberlin jazz studies majors will be able to audition for “The Sonny Ensemble.” Each candidate will be considered on four criteria: an audition, academic achievement, “thoughtful response to a question about the place of jazz in the world,” and “service to humanity.”

There were two Rollins-related initiatives in New York City. Brooklyn Councilman Stephen Levin introduced a bill calling to rename the Williamsburg Bridge after the saxophonist, who practiced on the span’s pedestrian path during a two-year hiatus that began in 1959. Also, Essex Crossing, a billion-dollar new development on Manhattan’s Lower East Side that decimated a walkup tenement at 400 Grand Street where Rollins once lived, announced it will honor him by naming a new 15-story tower in his honor. That new building at 145 Clinton Street will be called The Rollins.

Hanging up the mallets

Vibraphonist and educator Gary Burton surprised many in the jazz world in late February when he announced he was retiring for good—at age 74—after one final March tour with longtime collaborator Makoto Ozone. They set out for 13 concerts in eight cities over 17 days. Their piano-and vibes tour concluded in Burton’s home state of Indiana—and The Jazz Kitchen in Indianapolis. While Burton said he wouldn’t perform in public or even practice in private after that—there was one exception. On October 19, he played one tune at a Berklee College of Music concert honoring composer Michael Gibbs a few weeks after his 80th birthday. Burton dedicated his only solo performance of Gibbs’ “Sweet Rain” to “my school friend—we were in class together back in the day.” Gibbs and guitarist Bill Frisell, who was one of Gibbs’ students in the 1970s, were awarded honorary doctorates at the Boston event.

2017 Final Bars

The jazz world lost many musicians and industry-related people during 2017, including four of its NEA Jazz Masters: Muhal Richard Abrams, George Avakian, Jon Hendricks and Nat Hentoff. The year also included the October 24 passing of saxophonist Fred Staton. At age 102, he had been touted as the world’s oldest jazz musician. He was a member of the Harlem Blues and Jazz Band and the older brother of late singer Dakota Staton. Here’s a comprehensive compilation:

Accordionist Peggy Lawrence; accordionists and singers Dick Contino, Régis Gizavo; accordionist, singer and painter Karl Hodina.

Arranger and cellist Paul Buckmaster.

Banjo player, guitarist and actor Andreas von der Meden; banjo player and educator Charlie Tagawa.

Bassists Bob Christopher, Edwin Coleman, Bob Cunningham, Holger Czukay, Margaret Harmon, Mingo Jones, Tim Luntzel, Dave Moore, Nicolai Munch-Hansen, Don Payne; bassist and bandleader Jan Arnet; bassist, composer and broadcaster Ray Villadonga; bassist and ukelelist Lyle Ritz; bassist, singer, arts patron and philanthropist Ted Cutler; bassist and educator John Shifflett; bassist and recording engineer Spencer Starnes; bassist and broadcaster Jackie Flavelle; bass guitarist Robert “Pops” Popwell.

Bassoonist Alaeddin Adlernest.

Cellist Daniel Pezzotti.

Clarinetists Karl “Charly” Petri, Siggi Seyffer; clarinetist and keyboardist Patrick “Petz” Hartert; clarinetist and saxophonist Jean Tordo; clarinetist, singer and educator Paul Nossiter; clarinetist, educator and musical instrument company executive Mike Bennett.

Composer, arranger, accordionist and music executive Dominic Frontiere; composer, pianist, producer and singer Leon Ware; composer, pianist and educator Vuk Kulenovic; composer and guitarist Daniel Licht. Conductor, composer, arranger and producer Buddy Bregman; conductor, arranger and bassist William Brohn.

Drummers Rolf Bänninger, Benny Barth, John Blackwell Jr., Roger Blàvia, John Boudreaux, “Mad” Harold Cardwell, Bill Dowdy, Bob Herrman, Rudy Lawless, Jaki Liebezeit, Lou Marino, Pierino Munari, Sunny Murray, Skip Prokop, Ben Riley, Mickey Roker, Charles “Bobo” Shaw, Benny Soans, Corneliu Stroe, Clyde Stubblefield; drummer and bandleader Frank Capp; drummer and composer Zabba Lindner; drummer, composer and singer Wilson das Neves; drummers and educators Heinz von Moisy, Kim Plainfield; drummer and singers Arnold “Spider” Rondinelli, Grady Tate; drummer, singer and producer Bill Carney; drummer and timbalero Ramón “Monchito” Muñoz; drummer, producer, composer and arranger David Axelrod; drummer, editor and writer Tony Augarde; drummer, painter, printmaker and sculptor A.R. Penck (Ralf Winkler); drummer, bandleader and cultural advocate Jürgen Thormann; drummer and promoter Soares Katumbela; drummer and actor Janne “Loffe” Carlsson; drummer, broadcaster, engineer, producer and (Kneptune) record label owner Kenny Harris.

Educator and pianist Daisy Peterson Sweeney (Oscar Peterson’s sister).

Flutists Brian Delma Taylor, Dave Valentin; flutist, composer and educator Matt Marvuglio.

Guitarists John Abercrombie, Paul Abler, Tommy Allsup, Larry Coryell, Eddie Diehl, Stephan Diez, Willy Donni, Errol Dyers, Jay Geils, Col. Bruce Hampton, Allan Holdsworth, Halvard Kausland, Chuck Loeb, Mundell Lowe, Gustl Lütjens, Andy Manndorf, Tsunehide Matsuki, Skeets McWilliams, Fausto Mesolella, Phil Miller, Vincent Nguini, Bern Nix, Joel Perry, Léo Petit, Leon Rhodes, Bobby Trook, Samuel Tshiyembe; guitarist, banjo player and broadcaster Tony Davis; guitarist and bassist Ray Chamberlain; guitarist, bassist, producer and Steely Dan co-founder Walter Becker; guitarists and composers Paul Abler, Irio De Paula; guitarists and educators Bill Horvitz, Alan Joseph, Thomas Phleps; guitarist, educator and writer Ian Cruickshank; guitarist, arranger and producer Cheikh Tidiane Tall; guitarist and singer Chuck Berry; guitarist and artistic director of Senegal’s Saint Louis Jazz Festival Khabane Thiam.

Keyboardists and singers Delmar Brown, Junie Morrison; keyboard player and record producer Toby Smith.

Multi-instrumentalists Rick Centalonza, Kèmo Kouyaté, Mattathias Pearson; multi-instrumentalist, composer and bandleader Kelan Phil Cohran; multi-instrumentalist, composer, educator, AACM co-founder and NEA Jazz Master Muhal Richard Abrams; multi-instrumentalist and composer Harry Shírman.

Organists Melvin Carter Sr., Sarah McLawler; organist and composer Marián Varga; organist, pianist and vibes player Mike Carr.

Percussionist Bessemer “Bess” Taylor; percussionist and bandleader Anselmo Vidal; percussionist and educator Bobby Matos; percussionist and percussion instrument manufacturer Cali Rivera; percussionist and producer Laudir de Oliveira; percussionist and industrial instrument pioneer Z’ev (Stefan Joel Weisser).

Pianists Riza Arshad, Bill Barnacle, Gottfried Böttger, Clarence Bell, Don Coates, John Critchinson, Leo Cuypers, Armand De Genova, Nick DeNucci, Danny Holgate, Karan Joseph, Fumio Karashima, Brian Klarman, Lucho Macedo, Paul Mastriani, Tom McClung, Misha Mengelberg, Clem Moorman, Horace Parlan, Willie Pickens, Keith Stackhouse, Dolph Traymon, Avo Uvezian, Vladimir Vittikh, John Wright; pianists and arrangers Erich Becht, Czeslaw Gawlik; pianist, bandleader, composer and educator Barry Levitt; pianists, bandleaders and composers Theo Bophela, Billy Dennison; pianist and bandleader Jimmy Dale; pianist, bassist and composer Oscar Alem; pianist and club co-founder Al Neil (Vancouver’s Cellar Jazz Club); pianists and composers Egil Kapstad, Roberta Mandel, Maurice Vander; pianist, composer and arranger John Coates Jr.; pianists and educators Geri Allen, Bill Bell, Jim Pickley, Bill Seymour; pianist and film composer Luis Bacalov; pianist, radio producer and writer Michael Naura; pianists and singers Fats Domino, Gerry Gottschalk; pianist and poet Roy Fisher; pianist, conductor and musical director Vinnie Falcone; pianist, singer and educator Otis Hayes; pianist and educator Bill St Laurent; pianist, composer, club co-owner (The Ellington Jazz Club in Perth, Australia), educator and festival founder (Perth International Jazz Festival) Graham Wood; pianist and writer Mike Hennessey; pianist, multi-instrumentalist and bandleader Jeannot Rabeson; pianist and piano tuner John Butler.

Poet and jazz poetry cafe organizer (Richmond VA’s Tuesday Verses) Lorna Pinckney.

Saxophonists George Allgaier, Jean Aussanaire, Walter Badenschneider, Yves Belin, Arthur Blythe, Hugh Brodie, Bill Carmichael, Wilfried “Rimsky” Eichhorn, Jürgen Engesser, Alexander Evans, Lou Gare, René Gervat, Gijs Hendriks, Buck Hill, Pentti Ilmonen, Sid Jekowsky, Eddie Katindig (Eddie K), Milivoje Mića Marković, Bernie Mcentegart, Dick Meldonian, Syd Morris, John Murtaugh, Eddie Pazant, Stan Robinson, Sol Schlinger, Larry Slezak, Fred Staton, Joe Thomas, Ger van Voorden (Ger Sax), Ralph “Hassan” Williams; saxophonists and bandleaders Mel Martin, Larry Elgart; saxophonist, bandleader and producer Dave Pell; saxophonist, bandleader and singer Bob Poloncarz; saxophonist, composer and multi-instrumentalist Ralph Carney; saxophonist, broadcaster, educator and writer Bob Rigter; saxophonists and educators John Alexander, Tim Bell, Dick Culver, Andy McGhee, Skipp Pearson; saxophonist and musicologist Ekkehard Jost; saxophonist, producer and writer Christian Bonnet;.

Singers Richard Adam, Juli Fábián, Joy Fleming, Donna Fuller, Lucky Gordon, Peggy Hayama, Al Jarreau, Christine Jones, Thandi Klaasen, Myra Love, Jacky Micaelli, Debby Moore (Debbie McDade), Memo Morales, Chris Murrell, Peter Nthwane, Carole Renee, Lynn Roberts, Sandi Russell, Abel Sithole, Keely Smith, Bea Wain, Ruth Williams, Thomas Zawaira aka Bla Thomas; singer, songwriter, bandleader, educator and NEA Jazz Master Jon Hendricks; singers and actors Barbara Cook, Della Reese, Helen Southern; singers and educators Mili Bermejo, Kevin Mahogany; singer, guitarist, composer and arranger Boulo Valcourt; singer and guitarist Ray Phiri; singers and pianists Barbara Carroll, Buddy Greco, Janet Seidel; singer, keyboardist and producer William Onyeabor; singer and dancer Martha Arras (Martha Rich); singer and percussionist Frank Holder; singer and trombonist Boris Lindqvist (Rock Boris); singer and broadcaster Dick Noel; singer, broadcaster and comedian Saucy Sylvia (Sylvia Mureddu); singer, songwriter and producer Bernard Ighner; singer, songwriter and actor Luiz Melodia; singer, songwriter, pianist and producer Robbie Malinga.

Trombonists Wendell Eugene, Mike Grey, Pat Ireland, John Messner, John Thorp, Roger Williams; trombonists and bandleaders Morris Ellis, Bill Tole; trombonist and clarinetist Adolf Georg Klapproth; trombonist and composer Charles Small; trombonists and educators George Broussard, Roswell Rudd, Jeff Tower.

Tres player Papi Oviedo.

Trumpeters Günter Bochow, Hans Carling, Bill Dunmore, Gary Eisenberg, Gary Elton, Rod Hamer, Atle Hammer, Tony Hardwick, Elias Lopes, Rod Mason, Michael McGovern, Johnny Mekoa, Pit Müller, Hal Posey, Ernesto “Tito” Puentes, Toni Rabold, Leon “Red” Schwartz, Tony Terran, Steve Wiest; trumpeter and big-band leader Herb Runge; trumpeter, composer, educator and broadcaster Walt Blanton; trumpeters and educators Thara Memory, Melton Mustafa; trumpeter and Texas Jazz Festival founder Eddie Olivares Sr.; trumpeter and pianist Gordon Leinwand; trumpeter and bandleader Fejat Sejdić.

Tuba player John Buckingham; tuba and sousaphone player, bassist and jazz club operator (Edinburgh, Scotland’s Stud Club) James Young.

Vibraphonist and pianist Martti Pohjalainen, vibraphonist, studio manager and Monterey Bay Hot Jazz Society co-founder Jack Fanning.

Violinist Svend Asmussen; violinist and educator Nina Trott; violinist and producer Walter Quintus (CMP Records).

Washboard player and artist Klaus von Woyski.

Record label founders Joe Fields (Cobblestone, Muse, Savant, HighNote), Harris “Lee” Rea (Louisiana Red Hot Records); record label (BYG) founder, and record and jazz festival producer Jean Karakos; record producers Bob Erdos (Stomp Off),Hideo Ikeezumi (PSF Records), Eric Miller (Pablo Records); recording executive and producer Tommy LiPuma (A&M, Blue Thumb, GRP, Verve, Warner Bros.); record producer and promoter Gérard Terronès (Futura, Marge); record producer (Argentina’s Trova label) and broadcaster Alfredo Radoszynski; record label co-founder Dorsey Boyce Baron (ChazJazz); jazz promoter William Shaw (Coventry Jazz); Jazz UK project director Heulwen Phillips; jazz concert promoter and International Art of Jazz founder Ann Sneed; Swiss jazz and blues advocate and producer Hannes Anrig; booking agent Bennett Morgan; world music record producer and pianist David Lewiston; record and concert producer, manager, booking agent and drummer Steve Getz (son of saxophonist Stan Getz); record producer Uku Kuut; ublisher, entrepreneur and Playboy Jazz Festival founder Hugh Hefner; record industry executive (Decca, Columbia, World Pacific, Warner Bros., RCA), producer, artist manager, writer and NEA Jazz Master George Avakian.

Recording engineer Jim Czak (NOLA Studios NYC); recording engineer, producer, composer and keyboardist Charlie Eble.

Club owners Artis Jones (Milwaukee’s Mr. J’s and ARJ’s Blues & Jazz Club), Mario Maglieri (Whisky a Go Go, The Roxy Theatre and Rainbow Bar & Grill in Los Angeles), Jimmy Makarounis (Portland OR’s Jimmy Mak’s), Fred Salih (Fandango Café in Sarasota FL), Charlie Sims (Donna’s Bar & Grill in New Orleans), Amy Tabbinor (Stoke-on Trent UK’s Cellar Club), Fred Weintraub (New York’s Bitter End coffee house), Jim Young (Strictly Tabu in Dallas TX, Gonzalo Villar (Cuba’s El Malecón, La Negra Tomasa, MantecaJazz and XancaraJazz); club owner and broadcaster Jerry Gillotti (Gilly’s in Dayton, Ohio); club manager Paul Feyaerts (Café Damberd in Ghent, Belgium); music producer, poet and cultural activist Mappy Torres (New York’s El Taller Latino Americano); British jazz promoter, artist manager, record producer and club manager John Jack; jazz producer and drummer Fritz Ewald; British producer, promoter and club owner Harold Pendleton (London’s Marquee Club, National Jazz Festival); promoter Thelma Anderson (founder of Philadelphia’s Council of Jazz Advocates).

Guitar maker Bill Collings.

Broadcasters Heb Oscar Anderson, Helen Borgers, Pierre Bouteiller; former radio station owner (KJAZ), festival producer and real estate developer Ron Cowan; broadcaster, producer and photographer Steve Schwartz; broadcaster and writer Miguel Camacho.

Jazz scholar, educator and broadcaster David Cayer; ethnomusicologist Charles Duvelle.

Photographers Terry Cryer, Don Hunstein, Scott Pollard, Chuck Stewart, Pete Turner; photographer and artist Barkley L. Hendricks; photographer, writer and producer Paul Karting.

Writers Phyllis Croom, Thomas Fitterling, Alain Tercinet; writer NEA Jazz Master, historian and civil liberties advocate Nat Hentoff; writer, broadcaster and producer Elliot Meadow; jazz historian, archivist, discographer, writer, producer, educator and photographer Ed Berger; writer and historian Tom Jacobsen; writers and broadcasters Philippe Adler, Knut Borge, Lucien Malson; writer, promoter and Jazz In Arizona co-founder Patricia Myers; writer and promoter Michel Delorme; curator Rod Clarke (Museum of Traditional Jazz, Washington, DC); writer and French radio/ TV director Jean-Christophe Averty; jazz researcher Herman Openeer; writer, broadcaster and curator Sue Steward; writer and producer Royce Osborn.

Blues, gospel and R&B artists, and industry figures Lonnie Brooks, Wayne Cochran, James Cotton, CeDell Davis, Bill Donoghue (‘fesser Mojo), Jimmy Dotson, “Washboard” Lissa Driscoll, Calep Emphrey Jr., John Fisher, Guitar Gable (Gabriel Perrodin), Linda Hopkins, Melvyn “Deacon” Jones, Paul Oliver, Rudy Rotta, Davis Taylor, T.N.T. Tribble, Lundi Tyamara, Leo “Bud” Welch.

This Final Bars list was compiled from many sources including local newspapers, the Jazzinstitut Darmstadt newsletter, AllAboutJazz.com, Wikipedia, the New York Times, Legacy.com, Rolling Stone, Variety, JazzTimes.com, blogs, listserves, Facebook pages, Twitter and various and European publications.

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